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    The reference to the place of birth is decreasing. Place of birth and place of dying are different in many cases. The art of life is changing. In recent years, single households have doubled. Single households in Austria , 1. This made an increase of households from 2. On average, only 2. People have always been mobile and have left their homeland to settle in a new country. Between and , 50 million people left Europe and began a new life in America. In , the United States recorded half a million immigrants.

    In Europe, this situation is new today. France has 3 million "black people". The number of inhabitants in Austria grew by 1 million because of the political change in Eastern Europe. Wars also trigger migrations. In , 21 million people left their home countries because of war. In Europe 7.

    In the United Nations registered nearly million migrants. The United States have the most migrants with 47 million followed by Germany and Russia with 12 million each. All public figures and statistics do not include short term migrants, split migrants and occasional migrants.

    Maybe this figure would be higher than all the existing statistics. Rich migratants are called managers, tourists and globetrotters. There are real and virtual migrants. More to empower, more influence and decision-making competences. This is the ideal multicultural island.

    No one cares what the other does or does not do. Ideal to study the details of the split migrantism. Migrants with the same diverse identities, behaviors, possessions or traditions are present on this island. We can learn a lot from the observable phenomena of the real migrants, as they are currently flying uncontrolled in Europe.

    The study of temporal patterns of migration appears to us as a worthwhile scientific goal 8. BEKO Island 2. Split migration, short-term migration, migration gaps, social migration or parallel migration are new, currently observable phenomena in the real world, which have not yet been investigated at all. We are concerned with exploring these phenomena abstractly and experimentally.

    These virtual countries also create their virtual currency like bit-coins. Worldwide, more and more are being created. A project in Norway is called Liberstad. Sientistc call this "split migration". The modern computer technology Clouding and the blockchain algorithms allow to live different interrelated identities that occupy different physical and abstract spaces.

    Nomads have moved around the world. In the German language, "nomads" are those people who, as cattle breeders, move from one pasture to another. In English, hunter-gatherers are also included. All forms were pushed to the margins of society by industrialization and greatly reduced. The knowledge society re-cultivated it on an intellectual level. Today, nomads are moving around in the virtual world or working - for example, trade representatives - in their "catchment area".

    The area assigned to them by the employer. Similar to the nomads who guarded their herds of cattle and accompanied them through the feeding grounds. They were only allowed to do so in the areas assigned to them, otherwise there was war with the neighboring tribes. Looking at today's policy, Worknomades similar conditions arise again.

    People have always been mobile, have always traveled from one place to another. Stopping in one place is not typical for humans. There is no time in the history of mankind in which people have not moved. They have always sought new places. Not only physically but also mentally. Travel in the world of ideas. One third of the people of the modern era were always on the road. Being settled was a privilege and only temporary. The sedentary is more recent and was defined only with the advent of transport technologies like the railway in the 19th century.

    In the Middle Ages the leading class of society was mobile. They were the privileged ones. Just as today's pope traveled much, the medieval popes were very mobile. They rode themselves on their journeys. Professional qualifications are now growing faster and people have to relocate their jobs.

    The more rapid change of the place of life is therefore not just based on physical mobility, but also on mental level. In only 8 per cent of Austrians were privileged not to follow their jobs: Commute per cent Not 8 In the same city 30 In an other city 32 In an other regions 25 In an other country 5 An influence factor that people live outside a city and commute to work is the higher housing prices in the cities. It allows people to live in many different countries, regions and "worlds".

    Communication is with real people in real continents. Communication is possible in real time. It does not replace the physical journey but is mentally real. On average an Austrian motorists stays 78 minutes in a traffic jam. This is called "Floating Parking". The individuality of driving got lost.

    The average speed in the western cities is 16 to 24 kilometers per hour. In the German city of Cologne, the average speed is only 20 kilometers per hour, but in many other European cities already The transport speed of a car has reached the speed of a bicycle or a pedestrian.

    A change can be expected from the first generation of drivers who grew up "with the view of the headrest. They have a different approach to driving. They have not experienced the passing of the car windows freedom of the countryside.

    For them it was a transport from A to B without any adventures on the way. For them, the "drive" has become irrelevant. For them, the transport function in urban areas with their cost-benefit ratio is not of interest. For younger people the local mobility is stagnating.

    They do not like to have an own car. In the period to , the use of a car by young people decreased. In Vienna, the age group 20 to 29 years of age drove ten kilometers less by car every day and used more public transportion. They always use the cheapest possibility of transport and change between public transport and private transport. In doing so, they also increasingly rely on sharing systems. The "individual mobility" has a big future. As our society and the infrastructure has fewer pedestrians, a new way of "walking" expected.

    Like an electric toothbrush accelerates tooth brushing and increased the quality, an electronic pedestrian is a new way of transportation, which is adapted to the new environmental conditions. The bus of the dense network in the city; the train, the high speed; car sharing the loss of their investment; eBikes the vigor saving driving; etc Each transport system has its advantages and disadvantages, which looked at as a whole could bring benefits to the consumer.

    Networked Mobility allows the traveler to use all forms of transportation, from bicycles to taxi and to the aircraft. From there he went to the nearest available car sharing car. This car took him to the city boundary, where his own car was waiting for the cross-country trip. A network must coordinate the different forms of transportation. If the local bus departs 2 minutes before the arriving train, he has missed his functionality.

    Flexibility could give back individuality. This also applies to systems of passenger traffic. The gaps are created wherever the person boards or leaves a vehicle or changes transport system. If a trip begins, the person must reach — from their own position A - the position B where the vehicle stands. At each change of system the means of transfer must be done: from the taxi to the train or the train to an aircraft. This transfer must be done by own funds. Usually he is relying on the natural resources of his body, not only of themselves but also to transport some luggage.

    The most popular case is currently the own parked car right outside the front door. The car can be parked everywhere on a reserved parking space in front of each goal work, shopping, entertainment destination. This ideal has led to the known problems of space requirements and various displacement phenomena. Since this ideal is associated with very high expenditure on infrastructure and already concerns physical limitations, some lacunarity in the transport system is inevitable and growing.

    Nobody wants to go far to his pickup spot, no one wants to travel long distances between transport systems on foot. Even those people who want to enjoy walking the pickup spot in front of the house and are the exit point immediately have arrived. Each lacunarity in the system is therefore perceived as a deficiency. This regularity can be observed everywhere where technically different systems meet each other. Typical examples are large railway stations, airports or ports. When such bodies come together various transport systems are in the toughest competitive interface.

    The planner must therefore always make priority sequences, which in turn act to increase lacunarity. Nowhere should anyone have to cover such large distances in large modern airports or shopping malls. If one has the misfortune to have to use a less privileged transportation system for arrival, you can very quickly accumulate a few kilometers for transfer. Anyone who has ever experienced an overnight flight connection in London Heathrow knows what should be expressed here. The larger the cities, and the more people that live in a confined Float Walker space, the more oppressive are the problems of lacunarity.

    Overcoming the constraint of time and distance gaps to fit and conform to the system is perceived more and more as a restriction of freedom and theft of life. It leads to stress and unpleasant feelings. Although the experts know these relationships, they cannot stop, with current concepts, the growing lacunarity. The trend is also influenced by non legal actions. Citizens are more and more doing unlegal things, f.

    Paid parking, reduction of parking spaces and low transport speed are damaging the use of the traditional "automobile". Extreme political parties also pursue the goal of forbidding private mobility in the city. People have always been mobile and will remain so. They need new alternatives.

    Our society must forget the the name "Automobile". Both parts of this word have lost their authority. It is not "auto", not self-contained and not automatic. In its mobility - "mobile" — it is reduced. A new type of vehicle will come, which is neither a bicycle nor an automobile. On average, a car is currently traveling with 1.

    This means, that we need vehicles with one, but a maximum of two person capacities. According to experts, the transition to a new generation takes about 30 years. All the alternatives offered today are pioneers and transitional solutions to a new vehicle type. Moreover, if the current preference of gap minimization is reduced, more flexibility and freedom of choice would be achieved. It takes a lot of time and effort to change the system. The designers of shopping centers have recognized this and are striving for locations where as many traffic systems form a node.

    The gap becomes an experience. Now you can not build a shopping center at each node. In addition, every possibility of shopping again entails an individual transport problem. The transport operator becomes a small freight carrier. He becomes the transport vehicle of his own. Watching the crowded people who are postponing the crowds during the peak season. Passangers do not enjoy this. This is particularly true for those more old fellow citizens who are already struggling with walking.

    An ever-growing population in the cities. A suitable infrastructure can not be provided at every possible gap. The transport user must bring this infrastructure component by himself. Like his smartphone. In peripheral locations, where traffic systems are already widespread, interface handling is often much more dramatic.

    What is needed is an "adhesive" that fills the gaps. This "glue" could be an electrically operated device, a small electric vehicle. Easily transportable and like an umbrella to take away, in order to be used more quickly - electrical walking - in case of need. Grundlagen der Humaninformatik. Nur wie? Venizelou , Kallithea, Athens, geokol gmail. In the ancient times and especially in Athens, that was believed to be one of the cultural centers of the world, the role of the information channel was played by the great philosophers like Aristotle, who were discussing matters openly in the Academy of Athens.

    Nowadays, we live in the world of information and in combination with the rapid technological advancements all the necessary information is being processed by the Information and Communications Technology, hence ICT. The purpose of this paper is to make effort to identify the philosophical implications on ICT, and especially those of the Aristotelian theory. Then along with the theory on privacy we are going to examine the moral and ethical issues on ICT.

    Keywords: ICT, Aristotle, friendship theory, privacy theory, ethics Even from ancient times there are great examples of civilizations that used the given technology of the period in order to thrive and grow their empires. For example ancient Greeks were very fond of technology that was adding value to their everyday life and was assisting them in various tasks, with many paradigms of early automations being invented so as to aid them with their daily activities.

    Even Aristotle was admiring the capability of his generation to come up with numerous pieces of machinery aiming to ease the everyday life. After all he was a student of Plato who was the first to compliment the excellent work of the technicians of his time.

    Furthermore instead of only admiring the technology he was also experimenting with it and a great example is the hydraulic alarm clock he created in order to wake up after a short period and keep up with his work. Aristotle instead of viewing just the problem he was trying to cope with every single detail that caused the problem having in this way the whole procedure of the situation that went faulty. Through a system of equations he managed to turn logic into a mathematical expression.

    Nowadays technology has reached to a whole new level and is beyond any doubt a part of our everyday life and it even some times defines our activities. The most crucial element that operates technology is the flow of information, therefore ICT plays important role in the way the world is moving forward. Each piece of information is critical to the survival of technology, both formal and informal, therefore all social interactions and especially the trend of the social media that has been developed the recent years is considered a valuable tool in the information exchange.

    In this context the last years we have seen or we expect to experience networks operating in a 5G range, allowing not only for fast connection but also interconnection of various networks, the network of fiber optics being expanded everywhere, virtualization of all networks, accessibility for everyone, big data exchange networks, advancing cyber- security technologies, communications respecting the environmental and energy efficiency measures, continuously evolving smart mobile technologies, more intensive work on internet governance and finally the discovery and experimentation on molecular communications.

    The purpose of this paper is to try to combine the theories and beliefs of Aristotle with the rapidly growing ICT. So, after a short description of how Aristotle perceived things around technology and not only, we are about to identify parts of his theory that affect the way technology works even today.

    Based on the theories of agents and friendship we will attempt to understand to what extend the new technologies are affected by those theories. Continuing with the theories of privacy, morality and ethicality we are going to see to what extend the new technologies are affected by those terms.

    Aristotle used to depict critical problems that were offering him a chance to judge initially the existing conditions, express light distinctions and then move forward to locate the core of the philosophical dilemma. The very first solution that is promoted used to be his, offering most of the times however more than one alternative answers.

    After all he considered more important the discussion leading to a philosophical explanation than the explanation itself. Furthermore he is convinced that each science is ruled by their own principles, method and even language. Ethics for example cannot be faced in the same way as physics because the human act does not obey the laws of nature.

    There is even the chance two different fields within the same science, like biology and cosmology, to adopt their own distinguish set of principles. The work of Aristotle affected a plethora of researchers of the pathway of logic and as it is natural he created both rivals, as well as followers.

    On the other hand there are some admirers of Aristotelian logic like Ross, who insisted that the only thing that Aristotle did was to show to humans the way they were always thinking, as well as Leibnitz, who characterized Aristotelian theory as the most beautiful actualization of human spirit. Moreover the British mathematician and philosopher George Boole based his algebra on the Aristotelian logic that was testing if one condition is true or false, thus generating the binary numerical system on which the philosophy of later computers was based.

    Finally logic and the characterization of a condition as true or false depends not on words but on signals and body language, therefore is international and never local. Also according to Aristotle in the sequence of logic, quality leads than quantity and approval comes first from denial. According to Aristotle everything that is consisted of substance and tends to make a spatial movement is called an agent. From plants and animals to human being and even the celestial bodies of the universe.

    He was actually convinced of the existence of a divine entity, which he named the prime unmoved mover, that had a separate way of thinking and was generating primordial instincts causing this spatial movement of the agents, therefore none of them can be characterized as soulless.

    There is always a cause for such movement and for the animals for example may be the search for food, however, any slight movement affects other agents too. In his Politics Aristotle introduces us various other types of human agents like politicians, kings, managers, family heads, masters and slaves.

    According to Aristotle each one of these agents was using necessary tools in order to preserve the well-being of his commandment. For example masters used both living tools, the slaves, as well as tools without soul, so as to produce the necessities for the preservation of their household.

    However, he introduces us and a third type of tools, the artificial ones, which are produced within the household in order to increase the productivity of the other tools. Actually he admired the ability of some of those artificial agents to operate autonomously and he expressed the belief that if mankind reaches to a point that has for example machines that play music by themselves, eventually there is not going to be any need for the use of slaves.

    The most important thing was that master had the total control of what was being produced and he was the one to decide which part of it was going to be sold in the market for money. In Ancient Greece masters were always men as they were considered more capable to deal with all these situations. How the master was going to manipulate the tools in hand so as to sustain a worthy level of living, was totally up to him.

    It is more than understandable that the pursuing of more money through the sale of the production was preserving a life but not necessarily a good one. If he managed to keep all of the household actions on a viable level then we could speak for the virtuous agent. Nowadays ICT and biotechnology has been rapidly developed, in order to reach to a point of creating a new form of life. There are numerous examples of ICT being used as a digital implant, so as to support humans, generating this way the cyborgs.

    However, the important thing is that all these robots are controlled by their programmers and they tend to learn whatever their programmers plan. They are not allowed to take autonomous series of actions, at least not outside the framework that has been established by the programmer, following this way the perception of Aristotle on the matter of ownership.

    It is beyond any doubt acceptable the fact that we are counting more and more on various digital data such as biometrics in order to preserve our well-being and from this point of view we have excelled what Aristotle perceived as sustaining of a good life.

    There may be even a time that all these technologies are going to be more autonomous and operate without the support of the human, but scientists believe that this day will not come soon. However, it must be clarified that there is no possibility of the artificial life to mimic the natural effects on the human body, such as illness or facticity, thus human bodily existence is considered ambiguous while these technologies being actually immortal.

    Through the recent decade has been an exceptionally development of the informal route with the increase of the social media. However, the meaning of a social network is not at all new. Generally we could say it is a formation of people with common interests in order to exchange views, ideas and even other pieces of information. In a sense from our birth we participate in a bunch of social networks with the very first of them being our family, our classroom and school community in general, as well as our friends from the neighborhood.

    Within this context Aristotle developed his friendship theory that we analyze bellow. According to Aristotle friendship is based on the search of something loveable, which can either be the virtuous, the pleasurable or the useful, generating in this way the three levels of friendship.

    Of course Aristotle considered the third kind of friendship being the ideal one and the one that is more durable in time as it is based less on self-interest. Furthermore he considered essential the fact that both persons that characterized as friends should feel the same way for each other, otherwise this kind of relationship is something else rather than friendship. A new kind of friendship has been developed the recent years and it is called online friendship, which is not necessarily taking place only on social media networks as it has been mentioned above, but also through multiplayer online gaming platforms, or even other online communities.

    People just sit in front of a computer and interact with other people that are in front of their computer, either via exchanging instant messages, or through video chatting. They realize that in most of the cases of online friendship the levels of utility and pleasure friendship can be covered, however, they believe that the Aristotelian virtue friendship cannot be achieved mainly due to three reasons. Secondly the multiple filters in communication online can lead to distortion and loss of important clues, as well as the inability to engage in a variety of activities with our online friend.

    And finally there is an increased skepticism regarding the way that the Internet and especially social networking sites tend to shape how we interact and relate to one another. Especially young people who interact via these networks tend to search for fast-paced and shortened contacts, something that keeps them away from the Aristotelian ideal.

    There are critics who believe that filtering any means of online friendship via the Aristotelian approach tends to appeal that online friendship is purely artificial and cannot be compared to offline one that can reach the levels of virtue friendship. On the other hand there is a number of critics that can reassure us that the virtue friendship can occur even in the online digital world.

    It is purely up to the interpreter of the Aristotelian framework of friendship how they will depict the actualization of the various levels of friendship. Anything that is posted online on the social media is directly becoming a public good that anyone can use or reproduce as they like. Therefore we should all be very careful when we are expressing our beliefs and ideas within these communities and we share them online. There is always the possibility for some people to use such information in order to harm us willingly or not.

    Apart from other persons there are also companies that may wish to exploit our preferences with the sole purpose of gaining more publicity that is translated into money. Moreover there is a set of rules adopted by the International Organization for Standardization ISO that is considered a worthy privacy tool, in total accordance to the Data Protection Directive issued by the European Union. For example increased sensitivity of the security protocols serves as the best method for implementing a privacy respectful digital environment.

    Through the use of cookies companies can achieve more information on the habits of the person of interest and therefore send for example a more personalized advertising. For example the courageous person is the mediocre between coward and rash person. However, he emphasizes that in our effort to find the mean we should not let our emotions overwhelm us, like when we are angry we should always be aware of not exaggerating and not undermine the reason.

    Furthermore not every effort of finding the mean situation is measurable, as not all the problems are quantifiable. To overcome such conflict the virtuous agent equips the weapon of logic, in order to reach to the most appropriate decision. After all Aristotle believes that the person who acts virtuously does so for the greater good and not motivated by any self-interest. The important thing that Aristotle points out is that the theory of the mean may act as a guideline in identifying other similar attributes, however, the theory of ethic by itself is not able to lead anyone to a decision making process.

    This depends always on the circumstances that take place around the problem in hand and it is clearly up to the agent how they are going to interpret them, in order to reach to a decision they consider desirable. Also according to Aristotle there are certain emotions that are always wrong regardless the circumstances and in order to tame them actions should be determined by a governmental system, or simply follow some rules.

    It is always upon the agent to choose to involve in the ethical process, which usually demands practical reasoning, the limits of which are determined by the virtuous agent that acquires it. Also it depends on the character of the person how he is going to face a situation and if he is going to adopt a virtuous act and therefore determine the concrete ends and justifiable means of the ethical approach. The early approaches on computer ethics suggested the formulation of a set of rules that each professional of the computing field should follow, in order a moral action to be produced.

    In addition a program was being developed by Gotterbarn that was aiming to assist individuals, companies and organizations in determining likely ethical impacts of software development projects. It was upon the professionalization and ethical maturation of the computing practitioners that the activities of those projects are characterized as ethical or not.

    In fact the situation with artificial agents is that both sides, programmers and artificial technology, learn from each other. There is even the belief that human could use the artificial agents in order to come up with moral issues and philosophical dilemmas that otherwise were left being unexplained, like the nature of evil.

    Also in the twentieth century the American philosopher John Dewey expressed his theory that solving problems in ethics is like solving problems in algebra, therefore ethics and morality are computable problems and the creation of information technology that embodies moral systems of thought is possible. This belief led him to the design of a theoretical model of moral action using the logic of object oriented programming.

    The model consists of seven components: 1. The moral agent a 2. The moral patient p 3. The interactions of these agents 4. The factual information available to the agent concerning the situation the agent is attempting to navigate 6. The environment the interaction is occurring in 7. The situation in which the interaction occurs This kind of observations covered many fields of the human activity and therefore became common ground for every form of science.

    Indeed the theories of Aristotle are, as we have seen throughout this paper, applicable even today and help us understand a lot of things that are happening in our world. The most important thing is that still we are able to guide the technology we have in hand, in order to be more helpful in our lives and that the only way that it could harm us is if we show false intentions.

    If the user or the programmer of the technology does not have moral idiosyncrasy how do we expect from the technology to perform moral or ethical actions? Hence, research on service robots is focused on computer vision algorithms and techniques. This paper aims to present and analyse the various approaches on the forementioned direction.

    Specifically, this paper focuses on people tracking and identification techniques. Data for computer vision algorithms are collected by sensors such as cameras RGB, Depth etc. These techniques vary depending on the kind of data we acquired and of course, our aim in each case. Machine learning is the tool most frequently used, along with image processing and comparison. Of course, this does not exclude the possibility to generally serve people in their homes.

    It is obvious then, that robots are required to detect, identify and track persons. Identification and tracking are critical for the best possible execution of any task. Their significance is better understood if real life scenarios are taken into consideration. For example, the robot must be able to identify which person is instructing it at any given time. Thus, the robot could either execute or ignore the command. Another important aspect is security.

    In case there is an intruder in the environment or trying to intrude , the robot should be alarmed and execute an emergency plan, in order to prevent malicious situations. Of course, cameras are the heart of these systems. The point is to choose an appropriate one, that can provide the developer with data whose input will make sense and attribute to the algorithmical approach he wants to use.

    Cameras are usually sorted by the nature of the image in their output. In service robots, RGB-D cameras are more commonly encountered. These sensors offer the flexibility to have various data types available and use them as anyone may, in different tasks running simultaneously.

    Microsoft Kinect both versions and Asus Xtion Pro are the most popular. It is primarily used for environment mapping and navigation. However, it can be used for people detection and tracking too. For this purpose, pattern recognition techniques are trying to learn and recognize the pointclouds belonging to human legs. Again, a variety of data is obtained via the sensor, such as position in 3D-space and intensity.

    Figure 2: Indicative laser scanners [F3][F4] After accomplishing this, the robot is able to follow persons around and navigate itself to any position that is called or needed. The challenge is to construct and update a map of the environment, while, as the name implies, keeping track of the robot location. By robot location, both the position and orientation of the robot are described.

    Moreover, not all algorithms use the same sensors. So, deciding which algorithm to put in use is affected by the equipment available and vice versa. As formentioned, laser scanners are important tools for these problems.

    The idea behind its use is quite simple. As the laser scans the environment, the laser beams are reflected back to it when an obstacle is met. The distance is measured using the Time of Flight Principle. The conclusion is that this distance is an empty space, so the robot considers it as this. If the obstacle is moved, the map is updated with the new conditions. Moreover, it needs identify the target person, in case there are other people in the environment, for any reason.

    Detecting people can be accomplished using pattern recognition with a laser scanner, as mentioned in section 2. There are more effective ways of doing so nevertheless. It means that the algorithm is looking for a head, a torso, two arms and two legs. To accomplish these detections, usually Machine Learning-trained classifiers are used.

    This can be applied to directly detecting the whole human body too. Face recognition is another robust approach. The Haar-Cascade algorithm is the most popular way to train classifiers for this task. The robot is expected to recognize the face of the operator among others and deliver to him.

    For example, sometimes legs can be detected from a laser scanner. But, if no head is detected above them, then the assumption of person existence is false. Thus, the false positive leg detection is filtered out of the system. Picture characteristics comparison is interesting too.

    When knowing the visual characteristics of a person and his identity is given, it is possible to compare these with any other person to re-identify him. Again, this can become more robust using face recognition algorithms. The concept of perception includes both the position and object orientation.

    Orientation knowledge is crucial when it comes to manipulating the object. Manipulation is usually executed with a robotic arm gripper. So, the robot must be able to decide how to grip the object, in case of shape abnormalities or if special handling is required.

    Object perception algorithms vary, just as people identification case. Again, the use of algorithms is affected by the equipment available. At this point, it should be mentioned that the Haar-Cascade Classifier [see P1] is able to be used in this kind of tasks as well.

    A simple approach is detecting edges in images. Edge detection is based on brightness values. Discontinuity in brightness suggests that an edge exists in this line segment. Only sharp changes are taken into account when it comes to discontinuity. The most popular algorithm is the Canny Edge Detector [see P2]. Figure 4: Contour detection [F6] Another algorithm is based on plane detection.

    At first, surface planes are detected. Then, point clusters above this plane are considered as objects, after cross-matching some criteria of course. The drawback is that objects with planar shape e. Of course, the viewing angle affects the results. If the plane and camera are placed in parallel, there is a high chance that many points are not detected. This way, it creates a description consisted of these features corresponding to the training sample.

    If the features extracted are not affected by image scaling and noise of any kind, then the recognition is more reliable. Also, feature position is of great importance. Relative positions between the training sample and the image in comparison should not be different or diverge a lot.

    The difference is that it outperforms SIFT when it comes to computation speed and image transformation robustness. Roughly explained, the algorithm follows three steps: a point detection, b point neighbourhood detection and c feature matching between training sample and comparison image. It is interesting that for any given problem, there can exist more than one approaches. This makes it a fascinating subject, pushing the limits of creativity and imagination even further.

    The fact that research is focused on developing more and more reliable systems, gives confidence for a future algorithm or solution that solves multiple problems at once. PAMI-8, No. Yfantis Dpt. Tseles Dpt. The scope of the current framework is to build a model for the measurement of the impact of the privacy factor towards the intention of the user to adopt the wearable computing.

    Security is also an important influencing factor, because a wearable computing device that has been hacked, may grant access to the personal data of the user from non authorized persons. The worst case scenario is the unauthorized person who gains access to the hardware may cause a physical damage to the user by increasing the temperature of the device or even making it to explode! The current research framework about the impact of security on the adoption of wearable computing is limited or even non existing.

    An initial search on engines such as Google Scholar or Scopus offers limited results about the impact of security in general, on specific wearable health caring devices. The comments included concerns of criminal abuse, facial recognition, access control, speech disclosure and visual occlusion. On this occasion, the problem is that the eavesdropping attack method is an obvious way for the hacker to find the password.

    An important risk is when the wearable devices collect audio recordings and then these data become accidentally available to the public. The importance of security on the wearable computing as it is stated by the previous scholars and the underestimated factor of privacy on the adoption of the wearable computing, are several among the reasons that motivate me to explore the impact of security on the wearable computing adoption. By taking into account all this information, I define as a research question: What is the impact of privacy on the adoption of the wearable computing?

    The two scholars identified thirteen research themes by using the information systems as a general application sector. The first concept of my research question is privacy which is part of the information security research area, so among all the security research themes, I am going to focus mainly on privacy.

    Mason states that privacy is one of the most important ethical issues of the information age Mason, and the same argument is supported by Smith and other scholars who revise the information age and defining it as a networked society Smith, Papadaki, et al, Privacy is the security area that is related to the relationship between technology and the access to personal data.

    Privacy is a widely explored subject at the information security research area. Information system adoption is a multi disciplined research area; however this work is focusing only on the technology element of the information systems because it considers wearable computing as technology. The technology adoption is explored by several scholars as technology acceptance. After the analysis of the research question, the next step is to perform the research at several sources of information in order to find the knowledge gap and build the research model.

    The search for the literature is implemented by searching at several online databases. I decided to use a keyword strategy with the keywords "wearable computing" and each name of the six most popular adoption models that were mentioned previously. I performed 6 times the research, based on the six information system adoption models and then ended in 9 research papers.

    Specifically, the concept matrix table shows the articles that feature one or more of the six adoption theories in order to explore wearable computing adoption. The first step showed that there are 9 articles which discuss the wearable device adoption based on the six adoption models. The second step is to match those results with the privacy concept, so as to detect what has been written regarding the role of privacy on the wearable computing adoption. Only two out of the nine papers, discuss the impact of privacy on the wearable computing adoption and those two papers use the TAM model as the research model.

    For instance, they try to not show emotion when they wear devices that capture the emotion. Li and other scholars found that perceived privacy negatively affects the adoption of using wearable healthcare devices. So, what we know about the impact of privacy on the wearable computing is very limited.

    Based on the literature review method and the time of searching the databases, the results reveal that there is a knowledge gap of detecting the impact of privacy on the wearable computing adoption. I only have 2 records; however two records are not enough to generalize knowledge about the research question.

    The limited knowledge that I found through the literature review about the wearable computing adoption and privacy, defines an interesting knowledge gap that encouraged me to continue my research. However, both papers that discuss privacy mainly use TAM as a research model. I am choosing TAM as my research model because it is mainly used to explore the impact of privacy on wearable computing adoption. Technology Acceptance Model is an information systems theory that estimates how the technology users are going to accept the technology.

    Perceived usefulness is "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance" Davis, The other factor is Perceived ease of use and it is defined as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort" Davis, However, I am willing to use a different version of TAM.

    My version derives of the supported TAM constructs that have a direct impact on the intention to use, according to the literature review, the first version of TAM and the construct of privacy. I am assuming that the constructs that have a direct relationship with the intention to use, are the factors that strongly influence the wearable computing adoption. Based on the literature review, next table shows the supported TAM hypotheses that are featured in all the empirical papers that I found.

    By taking into account the wearable computing adoption as a rationale, I followed a scientific methodology by reviewing the existing literature and building a research model for testing. My research question was about the impact of privacy on the adoption of the wearable computing. The big question is what is next?

    How can we improve the privacy measures in order to encourage more people to adopt the wearable devices? A sociotechnical approach based on the privacy characteristics could be the answer to the problem. I would extend my research by defining a new research question about the impact of social and technical privacy on the wearable computing adoption.

    As social privacy, I consider the personal information that is relevant to the social status of the user Gender, age, etc. As technical privacy, I consider the personal technical information of the user Log files, smartphone synchronization, etc. Probably I would use a hybrid research methodology of experiment for the technical privacy and survey for the social privacy.

    My results would be a comparison between the two research methods and this research would probably reveal useful details for both marketers and technical designers of the wearable devices. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, , Perceived privacy.

    MIS Quarterly , The gap between real and perceived security risks. Computer Fraud and Security , Securing frame communication in browsers. Communications of the ACM , Context-aware applications: from the laboratory to the marketplace. International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitious Engineering. Marketing "smart" medical innovation: Physicians' attitudes and intentions. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing , Smartwatches: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly?

    Glass OTP: Secure and convenient user authentication on google glass. Understanding the violation of IS security policy in organizations: an integrated model based on social control and deterrence theory. Computers and Security , Internet privacy concerns confirm the case for intervention. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology.

    Knowledge Based Systems , London: Springer. Effects of price, brand and store information on buyer's product evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research , - A birthmark-based method for intellectual software asset management. New York: ACM. Mouton, L. Towards an ontological model defining the social engineering domain. Turku: Springer. Reading: Addison-Wesley. Review on IT adoption: insights from recent technologies.

    Journal of Enterprise Information Management , - An introduction to seismology. Information Management and Computer Security , Applied Mechanics and Materials , Journal of Navigation , International Journal of Medical Informatics , User acceptance of wearable devices: An extended perspective of perceived value.

    Telematics and Informatics , — Protection motivation and deterrence: a framework for security policy compliance in organisations. European Journal of Information Systems , Four paradigms of information systems development. Kallikratis Law. Information privacy in cyberspace transactions. Stanford Law Review , Concepts and measurements of innovativeness: the case of information and communication technologies. An acceptance model for smart watches: Implications for the adoption of future wearable technology.

    Internet Research , - Social access vs. Pervasive Computing , Enhancing security and privacy with Google glass. The role of service level agreements in IT service delivery. International Journal of Medical Informatics , 8— Journal of Computer Security , PLoS Medicine. Towards an evaluation framework for eParticipation. Information Systems Research , Four ethical issues of the information age.

    Inferring internet denial-of- service activity. Social engineering attack framework. Johannesburg: IEEE. American Review of Public Administration , - Information technology adoption models at Firm Level: Review of literature. Determinants of adoptionof third generation mobile multimedia services.

    Journal of Interactive Marketing , Americas Conference on Information Systems pp. San Francisco: AISel. Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press. Core Affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review , Disseminating active map information to mobile hosts. IEEE Network , Communications of the Association for Information Systems. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction , What makes consumers use VoIP over mobile phones?

    Free riding or consumerization of new service. Telecomunications Policy , Information security: Critical review and future directions for research. Research of human factors in information security. Modern Applied Science , Improving awareness of social engineering attacks. Auckland: Springer. Understanding consumer intention with respect to purchase and use of pirated software. Capturing 'cool': measures of assessing coolness of technological products.

    Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory , Technological approaches for addressing privacy concerns when recognizing eating behaviors with wearable cameras. ACM international joint conference on Pervasive and ubiquitous computing pp. The Invention of the First Wearable Computer. The processes of technological innovation. Lexington: Lexington books.

    Diffusion of innovations: Anatomical informatics and iPods. The Anatomical Record , User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly. New York: Little, Brown and Company. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks. Journal of the Association for Information Systems , An empirical study of wearable technology acceptance in healthcare.

    Promoting consumer adoption of high-technology products: Is more information always better? Journal of Consumer Psychology , The main question is whether the way we use these devices is correct or do we need to change something in our behaviour towards technology? Includes maps, virtual tours and photo galleries.

    In Italy. This site gives you details on events in the area. Don't miss the Festival at Foligno: Giostra Della Quintana - Horse Tournament: This historical tournament is carried out by ten "knights" who vie with each other as the representatives of ten districts of the town.

    Also includes sections on the history and geography of the islands. Includes links to the history, geography, and culture of each, illustrated with maps and beautiful photos. Includes a wonderful section on Portuguese wines by region and by type. Castles on the Web. Turkey - Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Bodrum, the Complete Guide. Peter's Castle of Bodrum built by the Knights of St.

    Ephesus Guide www. Island of Rhodes www.

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