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    As in other figures, major changes can only be observed from the World War II onwards. The improvement in income situation, an increase of obesity, height and wastage and the ageing of the Portuguese population offsets changes in the activity level. Recent studies reveal that the status of Portuguese nutrition is not healthy.

    The results of a National Health Inquiry in showed that Until the discovery of fossil fuels, firewood was almost the only source of energy that provided heat for the population and industries In Carmo et al. Firewood is one of the traditional sources of energy in which quantification is subject to the highest degree of uncertainty. Food consumption is normally limited to a fixed degree of variability; wind and water energy consumption is very small when compared with total consumption.

    Wrong firewood consumption figures, on the other hand, may compromise very easily an otherwise correct figure for total energy consumption. In fact, biomass consumption per capita in early modern Europe could vary from The risk of seriously under or overestimating energy consumption is of course higher in countries where firewood has a major importance; and among those where most of the consumption is not recorded by the market.

    Average per capita firewood consumption figures are harder to obtain if most of the fuel is consumed by households, if there are major regional differences in patterns of consumption and if a certain amount of charcoal, dung and crop residuals is also consumed.

    Firewood consumption can be estimated by the demand side or the supply side. In Europe, there are well known attempts to estimate firewood consumption from the supply side or demand side, according to the available data. For Sweden, Kander preferred to make an estimate based on the demand side, due to a very good data set on the industrial sector and because household firewood consumption figures were available for a set of benchmark years from the beginning of the twentieth century.

    Malanima used estimations from economists in different benchmark periods but included some demand benchmarks in the recent years of his series in order to calculate the Italian consumption The most serious problem with the demand side concerns the availability of disaggregated data, while the most serious problem with the supply method is related to the Victor and Victor For Portugal, adopting land-use areas as a ceiling for the maximum firewood consumption in the country is rejected.

    First, we have few benchmarks for land use and forest yields Second, most of the firewood did not come from conventional forests but from the commons or wastelands in the form of fallen biomass. It is an inglorious task to know precisely the size of the unconventional forest, but it is clear that it was considerable. Arable 1 3 3 2. Pastures, fall and heaths 2 1 1 3. Forests 1 1 2 2 3 5. Wastelands 3 1 1 1 1 7. However, trees and bushes also grew elsewhere. Arable land also included fruit trees such as vines, olives or hazelnuts which could be partially used to satisfy the needs of the population.

    On the heaths, charneca, covering a large part of the non-arable south of the country, there were cork and holm oaks that supplied most of the charcoal to the capital. See INE So the figures that they achieve are closer to the industrial and urban consumption than to the total consumption in the country In contrast to the supply-oriented approach, richer sources advise the use of a more demand side approach. I only distinguish charcoal from firewood.

    Charcoal is a secondary energy, made from firewood. As the goal is to estimate the primary energy consumption, we measure charcoal consumption as the amount of firewood that was necessary to One of the examples is the INE study for calculation of wood extraction not disaggregated by uses in the period. Production varied from 7 million m3 in and 9. Firewood and wood consumption in the mainland was about 0. As a ceiling it seems extremely low when compared with my figures from the demand side, which only include firewood.

    If the same exercise is conducted for , a per capita figure of only 0. The energy content of firewood is equal to the one applied by Malanima a to Italy. Early studies of the average energy content of Portuguese biomass also confirm the chosen firewood energy content Carvalho, An experience of charcoal production made in the s with different wood species showed that about 5 tonnes of wood were needed in order to produce one tonne of charcoal Charcoal production was more efficient in Portugal than in other parts of the globe.

    In Italy, the firewood needed to produce charcoal is assumed to be 5. Today, a major energy issue in developing countries is to determine accurately the level of residential firewood use. For these countries it is crucial to know not only the level of firewood use, but also firewood expenditures, major firewood consumer groups, etc, in order to implement correct energy policies or to test the effect of the same policies.

    These energy policies can be of different order. Some tend to promote the use of modern and convenient energy carriers, some address indoor pollution problems; others focus on energy efficiency by easing the access to efficient stoves Some policy makers are worried with biomass stocks and require energy figures in order to implement supply policies. There is also a purely statistical concern in calculating firewood consumption that can result in major revisions of energy use, household income and GDP figures.

    Accounting for firewood use is difficult to achieve from the supply side, as most of the firewood is collected from a nearby area by family members. Most of the firewood consumption is extrapolated by a range of surveys. This is also difficult as most of the consumers do not know precisely how much firewood they consume. Firewood figures are normally given as volumes, but metric volume measures are rare.

    Usually it is given in ox carts, but a different set of traditional measures that nobody knows precisely how to convert to calories or GJ are often used The inquirer has to deal with the fact that rural consumers have a poor educational background and cannot give accurate answers. However, most of the statistical institutions of these countries are becoming Lopes As a result, better figures are being produced for a wide range of countries Firewood consumption figures in developed countries are perhaps even more poorly established.

    Basically, for a long period of time, firewood was not recorded because it was not relevant for energy policies. It was assumed that firewood use was basically a residual and not worth accounting for. Some European countries discovered only 10 or 15 years ago that household firewood consumption was clearly underestimated. Portugal was one of these countries. From to , the series of energy balance sheets assumed a residential firewood consumption of - thousand toe tonnes of oil equivalent.

    However, two major energy-specific household inquiries conducted in and tripled this figure. From till there was no strong change in population distribution. Energy consumption patterns varied widely between rural and urban populations. I have decided to consider three major groups of consumers in my estimations: Rural, Lisbon, Oporto and remaining urban areas.

    Qualitative descriptions and quantitative figures from the rural areas in give an idea that standards of living were low. Most of the rural population did not have access to electricity, gas, plumbed water or sewage An open fireplace and a firewood oven were the only equipment of the Portuguese rural house.

    The See Victor and Victor INE Urban areas of Lisbon and Oporto contrast with rural areas in energy conditions. In Lisbon, in the middle of the 18th century, the houses that were built after the earthquake did not incorporate fireplaces, probably for safety reasons Charcoal, instead of firewood, was the major fuel in Lisbon in the beginning of the 19th century.

    Energy transition in those two cities occurred at an earlier date due to several reasons: access to the sea, this is, foreign coal and kerosene; considerable distance from firewood suppliers; earlier adoption of town gas and electricity potential firewood substitutes. The remaining urban areas can be considered a third distinct group in firewood consumption patterns.

    Although gas and electricity usage in cooking or heating was an exception in the s, it is presumed that urban dwellers were likely to use less firewood than rural dwellers. The better insulation of urban dwellings, the use of more efficient equipment, and the need to acquire the fuel in the market are some of the reasons for this assumption.

    On the first of November a major earthquake, followed by a tsunami, destroyed the downtown Lisbon and claimed several thousand victims. This earthquake was followed by a major fire, which caused the majority of the injuries. Charcoal is the only energy carrier that is covered in all of this period. For until there are records of different subtypes of firewood, but taxation of these products came to an end in June of This tax should represent accurately what was consumed in the city, as the city did not have any relevant forests.

    Most of the charcoal and firewood would enter into the river ports or train stations where strategic polls were located, so no serious under registration happened Figure 2. Conversion measures until : charcoal bag This was the case with some foodstuff products such as olive oil.

    There are some doubts as to whether the true value of the bags changed according to the epoch. I took this fact into account when calculating the population subjected to this tax This time, charcoal figures are converted into primary figures, to account for the amount of firewood that it took to produce. Fig 2. During WW I and immediately after charcoal consumption rose to a record of 3. It is possible to compare the firewood requirements of Lisbon city with the ones registered in other pre-industrial European cities.

    From to firewood consumption in Lisbon was about 1. We distributed the sudden gain of population in for the forthcoming decade in order not to bias the levels of charcoal consumption. To build a per capita series of household consumption of firewood for Lisbon in the period , I have used a strong assumption.

    Firewood and other types of biomass have not been considered since they are only covered for the period of and they are believed to be an expression of industrial consumption. On the other hand, charcoal is assumed to be consumed only by the household sector. This is of course a simplification, as some households could consume firewood and some industries could consume charcoal.

    There are some reasons to assume this division that go beyond the mere convenience of the available data set. There are no complete industrial inquiries for those dates that can definitely resolve this question.

    However, none of the 75 factories of various branches visited by an Industrial Inquiry Commission in reported the use of charcoal While in other countries, like in Sweden, charcoal was widely used in iron works, Portuguese industries that worked with iron reported the use of coal and coke, but not charcoal in that Inquiry. Tailors were known consumers of charcoal but there was no potential benefit for other industries to use this fuel, as it was more expensive than both firewood and coal per energy unit.

    On the other hand, some of the ceramic and glassworks reported the use of firewood. Bakeries may also be appointed as a major consumer group, although they are not reported in this survey. A majority of Lisbon dwellings, as already stated, did not have fireplaces.

    Contrary to industry, there was a health and hygienic benefit from the use of charcoal, as charcoal is less smoky than both firewood and coal. We have ways of connecting the series with other sources. An inquiry was conducted in by INE on the household expenses to a sample of one thousand families The goal of this inquiry was to update prices per weight at a regional level.

    Several energy products are included in the final report: coal both mineral and vegetable , gas, electricity and kerosene. As the report does not distinguish between mineral coal and charcoal, some rough calculations have to be made.

    We know from other studies that most of the Malanima a. This means we have to be careful with the wording in the inquiries. For 0. During the season - , INE conducted another inquiry with the same goals as the one. The data concerning the years and is connected by linear interpolation.

    The same per capita consumption of - is assumed for Charcoal consumption in 1. It is assumed that this divergence appeared after , as a result of a more rapid energy transition in the capital Families bought on average — kg of firewood a year expressed in primary energy. As we are already in the midst of Teives The per capita figures are almost similar to the Oporto ones in the period.

    Among other questions, families were also asked on how much firewood they consumed Those figures were normally given in oxen carts. I have converted them into kilograms; one cart being equivalent to kg of firewood The same value is assumed for the rural population during the entire period since, even in the s, firewood was the only fuel used for cooking and heating. This constant number relies on the assumption that there were no major changes in the efficiency of equipment.

    This is likely as the description of a rural house interior in confirms the use of open fireplaces. Residential energy transition to modern fuels was particularly impressive in the post-war years. In Lisbon there was an increase of gas consumption leading to the quick disappearance of charcoal, the major fuel. In Oporto and Centre- North urban centers there was a major fuel switch from firewood, kerosene and charcoal to electricity.

    In the rural areas, there was a slow but persistent change to butane. These and other similar works can be found in the archives of the Agronomy Faculty, Technical University of Lisbon. I managed to compile 65 monographs that had references to energy quantities. The bulk of quantitative responses on firewood consumption can be found in Basto and Barros The information was complemented with the studies of Suspiro and Garcia The families included in the estimation are from the Northern and Central rural areas of Portugal, where the vast majority of population lived.

    I have used a figure that is similar to the oxen cart in the Oporto region. Higher estimates may be produced with a greater and also plausible weight kg. We prefer to risk underestimation of firewood consumption than overestimation, as both figures give high shares of firewood consumption. These studies form the basis for recent estimates of firewood quantities. In the past, household firewood consumption had been estimated by reports from the production sector according to firewood sales figures.

    The DGE reports were far more accurate than the previous estimates, which were proven outdated and underestimated. Among users, consumption was rather high, at the level of 3 tonnes per family and 3 kg p. These values make me believe that figures for firewood consumption in rural areas before are not overestimated despite the fact that conventional forest statistics do not agree with these estimates.

    The DGE gives the average of about 1. For example, the survey indicates 1. Butane has been reported as the main substitute for firewood consumption after See Teives Firewood consumption per capita declined by more than one half in relation to The importance of firewood within the Portuguese households at present is very high.

    Textiles, paper, wood and cork are the other major consumers For to , energy consumption of main fuels including firewood is reported by branch in Industrial Statistics Data from to cannot be used without corrections, as total industrial production is poorly covered. Adjustments for industrial production have been made in GDP historical reconstructions by growth accounting economists such as Batista et al.

    However, due to the fact that coverage of GDP may be different to coverage of intermediate consumption, I adjust the statistics by comparing branch by branch the figures for electricity consumption given in Industrial Statistics with the ones of industrial electricity consumption in Electrical Utilities Statistics, which are considered to be very complete.

    This is done for a set of benchmark years: , , , , and In the case of a homogenous industrial branch it is possible to assume that electricity coverage is approximately equal to firewood coverage. Below, I present the results for each branch, as sometimes I take into consideration other factors in the correction.

    Ceramics and glass Coverage in electricity consumption is checked in the glass industries and ceramics and cements against a set of benchmark years. The coverage of Industrial statistics is good. Nevertheless, I have corrected the raw data in order to take into account small differences see Table 2. However, in this case the underestimation of firewood consumption is lower than that of electricity consumption because an important branch, the cotton industry, is missing until Electricity shares of the cotton branch in the textile industry are much higher than its firewood shares.

    The chosen option is to change the firewood consumption in the cotton branch in the same manner as the rest of the sector for the period. Cork was not represented before , so I have made a correction to include cork firewood consumption, based on cork production figures. In there is a strong increase in the number of branches covered I assume that the branches entered in already existed but were not reported in the Industrial Statistics.

    I have made a first correction in order to incorporate those branches, assuming that the share of firewood consumption in the periods was equal to the one in The following table shows the raw and the corrected data for benchmark years.

    A small series for charcoal consumption by industrial manufactures exists for the years — but is not included due to methodological difficulties There are no industrial surveys that can help us in the estimation of industrial firewood consumption before Qualitative evidence indicates that firewood was employed in steam machines in rural areas where transportation costs would have made coal a very expensive fuel Annual average charcoal consumption tonnes 21 ; 13 A national steam generator inquiry showed that I have applied a rough measure to estimate firewood industrial consumption for the period before For , I have varied firewood consumption according to the GDP of each industry and as a proportion of total industrial GDP for the period prior to This method assumes the same firewood intensities for each branch during and ; and the same global firewood industrial intensity for the period The results give only 76 thousand tonnes in Lisbon firewood consumption in that year was reported to be 30 thousand tonnes.

    The total tonnage consumed by the railway sector is reported by INE Firewood consumption was registered from to , being expressive until Reports of charcoal production for use by wood gas generators in internal combustion engines are also included for The daily reports from the Lisbon electric plant and the annual reports of Oporto electric plant on firewood consumption are used to estimate firewood used for electricity production during those years Firewood was also distilled during the years in order to produce town gas in Oporto Batista et al.

    See Appendix B, Table B. Consumption figures have been taken from annual reports of Oporto electricity and gas services Data on firewood consumption for power production is lacking from the end of the World War I until , when official electrical statistics begin Firewood consumption for the years has been obtained from data, which means assuming that electricity production using firewood accounted for 2.

    For onwards I connected Electrical Statistics series for with the values for firewood and other solids rice peels, olive seeds, etc reported in Energy Balance Sheets for power uses. After , firewood to cogeneration is included in this rubric.

    Household figures make the bulk of consumption. Only in the last quarter of the century did manufacturing figures approach household figures. No adjustments are made to cover firewood use for gas production in other parts of the territory as 1 The Lisbon coal gas factory was closed from until as a result of a government agreement to save coal.

    In order to quantify for their contribution, some historical studies calculate the direct energy expense of the animal while working, i. However, as we are interested in energy inputs we must regard an animal as a living organism that converts chemical energy from fodder into mechanical energy. Like humans, only a portion of the fodder consumption of the animal is used in order to perform work.

    Most of the fodder ration is given to keep the animal alive. However, all fodder must be taken into account in our calculations, since it is impossible for an animal to survive and thus work without a minimal survival ration. Not all domesticated animal are of interest, since most of them are bred in order to provide for meat and dairy products.

    To calculate primary energy consumption from an animal we need to know the number of working animals. The feed ration depends on the type of animal, its weight and the type of work it perform, so stratified data on cows, oxen, donkeys and mules must be produced as well as some assumptions of animal weight and intensity of work. In order to estimate primary energy consumption from the fodder intake by working animals, we benefit from the work of Kander and Warde.

    The authors suggest a standard conversion of cows, donkeys and mules into oxen or horses, a table of diary fodder requirements according to the size of the oxen and horses, and an assumption of average work intensity. This would assume that only energy requirements for work would be accounted for in the case of cows.

    We should notice however that a working or lactating pregnant cow intake could be superior to the one of an ox. The use of cows instead of oxen can be considered an energy saving practice as it allows keeping less animals in a farm.

    For to there are about ten national censuses which allow us to determine the number of horses, donkeys, mules, oxen and cows at the time Calves up to two years old and non-working cows are eliminated from the total. At the end of the nineteenth century oxen were the most important source of draught power in the country. For some European regions an important improvement in agriculture was the substitution of horses for oxen.

    Although a horse was more expensive to maintain, it was faster and could endure longer working hours. However, the equines were never important in agriculture, but more reserved for the transportation and leisure of wealthier individuals This was probably one of the higher percentages in Occidental Europe, which is also connected with the almost vegetarian diet of the Portuguese population.

    Besides, the use of cows could be an optimal solution as it allowed for a saving of feed resources as fewer animals could sustain both the milk and working needs of a farm Concerning the size of the animal I have assumed kg for horses and mules and kg for donkeys as proposed by Kander and Warde for Mediterranean countries Adjustments to include the islands are made for some benchmark periods. The only recognized Portuguese breed comes from the North of Portugal, Miranda.

    The breed is related to the Spanish Zamorano-Leones with an average weight of kg The choice of the weight of the bovine cattle is influenced by the weight records of bovines at the slaughterhouses in the two main Portuguese cities. Both slaughterhouses show an increase of bovine weight until WW I.

    For the period, I have assumed kg per bovine head in and a linear rise until kg in It is not possible to obtain census data for animals after Annual figures for the years are obtained by linear interpolation between the figures and the projected values. In the average weight of adult bovine cattle was kg. After , statistics at Lisbon slaughterhouse show a strong decline. Statistics recovered after the beginning of the s to reach pre-war levels in The main consumers of these energy carriers were mills and sailing ships.

    In most of the cases, wind and water energy represents only a tiny portion of the total energy consumed by the country at a given time, and a per capita consumption in the range of 0. It is very hard to calculate wind and water energy on an annual basis, as it is not possible to know with exactitude the number, power, efficiency and intensity of use of the converting machines. Due to the small amounts of energy involved and the poor quality of the benchmarks, I have decided for reasons of convenience to treat water and wind in the same section, distinguishing them by type of driver mills and sailing.

    However, our series begins in the s and at that time the Portuguese fleet was unable to compete with the foreign constructors. Statistics on the number and tonnage of sailing ships are available Appendix B, Table B. In that year there were only vessels. Due to the advantages of steam and internal combustion motors, the fleet decreased to vessels in , although tonnage peaked in that year, to vessels just before the WW II and to 3 vessels in One way to estimate the power of those vessels is to follow the calculations from Malanima The ratio of steamship net tonnage to its power was reported to be 2.

    Then he multiplied the power of those sailing ships by their intensity of use assuming that a ships power was fully exploited 10 hours a day for days a year. One of the problems with this method is that it assumes that energy can be transmitted from the sails to motion in a perfectly efficient way. Lindmark calculates that primary energy from wind is approximately 0. I have applied this coefficient in terms of gross tonnage, and assumed a coefficient of use of 3 hours year for merchant sailing ships in line with the previous booklets in this series.

    Wind could also be used by smaller boats in coastal navigation and by fishery boats. There are no reliable statistics for the first type of boats, but statistics record the tonnage of registered fishery boats that employed wind as their source of energy Tonnage reached a peak of 48 in In terms of numbers, fishery boats continued to grow until , when they numbered 15 units but tonnage was decreasing due to competition with internal combustion motors.

    There were still 11 in but decreased quickly to 2 due to the rules of the Common European Fishery Policies that financially supported the removal of small and obsolete units. In order to calculate primary energy, I employ the same method used to estimate vessel energy. I assume a coefficient of use of 2 hours a year. This also reflects the fact that an unknown proportion of boats was not in use. Data on the number and power of windmills is very scarce along the period of Due to the low quality of the information available, the option is to produce an acceptable benchmark figure for the only year which enough information is given and to depart from this year to derive long-run estimates for the remaining years.

    This inquiry is the only one that reports the number and power of both industrial and cereal mills. The crude information is far from optimal, but Santos improved the reliability of the inquiry by making an estimate of the mean power of watermills and windmills based on the incomplete information of that inquiry The census records 2 windmills and 7 watermills in operation.

    In order to estimate energy consumption from power we have to know how long the mills actually worked in a year. Statistics record only the power of the mills, that is, the capacity to produce work per unit of time. As we are interested in inputs, that is, the water falling on the wheel or captured by the blades, we must add the energy which was lost in the process of transmission. I calculate the apparent consumption of grain in water- and windmills adding to the production figures of wheat, rye and corn the quantities of wheat imports, and subtracting one tenth of this gross value to account for animal intake and the grain consumption in steam-mills According to Reis , industrial workers worked for days a year, 10 hours a day at the end of the 19th century.

    However, windmills and watermills did not always operated during industrial work. Summer droughts could substantially decrease the use of watermills as the need of water for agriculture works increased. Windmills could be even less reliable, sometimes merely used as a poor substitute for water power.

    Probably, the power indicated by Santos was not reached throughout the year. To address these constraints, we assume that watermills only worked at full power in 9 months of the year. In the remaining three months, power was reduced to half This means that we assume that a watermill was working at full power for 2 hours a year and hours at half the power.

    After calculating the energy consumed it is also necessary to understand the efficiency of both windmills and watermills. Thus, for a wind turbine to be perfectly efficient it would need to stop the wind, but then the rotor would not turn.

    In the case of watermills the efficiency was dependent not only on the materials and design of the wheel and transmission equipment but also on the manner in which the water ran into the wheel. Despite all these improvements, it was not the best technology that was in use in Portugal. In , it seems that the majority of industrial watermills were still driven by mixed wheels wood and iron. It is not The time of use is estimated on the upward side.

    Chapter 4 provides some examples that time of use could be even lower. The wheel is designed as undershot when the water ran at the bottom of the wheel and overshot when the movement is given by the falling water. The number of turbines is mentioned in the Industrial Census.

    They were only , a tiny proportion of the 7 watermills. I assume that turbines were employed in the industrial sector, where a higher intensity of use coefficient is used. In , windmills and watermills consumed In relation to industrial mills, there is scarce information available on their number before our benchmark year, Therefore, we just assume the same amount of energy use in industrial mills for the period The industrial survey of records the number and power of industrial watermills It says nothing about windmills so I just assume that their industrial activity disappeared at the end of World War I.

    We can only obtain other benchmarks four decades later, with the publication of industrial statistics. It seems that absolute water power may have grown after By the statistics report 10 hp; by 11 hp. I calculate the average power for the districts where power information was given and assume the same average power for turbines with unknown power information. His figures show a total power of 1 hp, less than half of what I roughly estimated. See Chapter 4.

    Efficiency around that period had grown with the substitution of turbines for wheels but intensity of use had probably dropped. Furthermore, water was used more and more as a complement to steam. It is even harder to calculate the energy spent in cereal grinding. While apparent consumption of grain can be used to calculate primary energy in the early part of the series , things get complicated after The statistics report the number of watermills and windmills subjected to the industrial tax until The absolute number of watermills may have increased from 8 in to 11 in while windmill numbers remained constant.

    However, in terms of hp, steam already had the capacity to grind all the grain consumption of the country around the s The situation of the sector in was elucidative of its overcapacity. At that time the industrial statistics reported the existence of 3 factories, 2 windmills 2 with no extra motor and 32 watermills 31 with no extra motor on the mainland.

    From this number, and for public consumption, there were 1 factories, 1 windmills and 10 watermills operating. An extra factories, windmills and 14 watermills produced in regime of own consumption. In terms of power all factories and motorized mills had a power of 56 hp If the average power of a cereal windmill and watermill was the same in as in , water and wind power in use accounted for 2. As we do not know the quantities of grain grinded by the motorized units, it is inglorious to attempt any calculation for I assume then, that despite the overcapacity of the industry, water and wind energy use were related to the number of people employed in the agricultural sector.

    With this assumption, primary energy use from wind and water cereal mills varies little from to 0. Below is a summary of the results of our calculations Table 2. In the period the most important use of water and wind energy was cereal grinding. Water and wind energy represented along the period a very tiny proportion of total energy consumption. Applying the same production rates as in , capacity clearly exceeded production.

    Windmills and watermills were not considered factories if their production was lower than 10 tonnes of flour per month. It is included under this heading in the Appendix. In the 19th century the low quality of the coal never attracted the industrial consumers and production reached only a few thousand tonnes. During WW I, coal extraction increased to thousand tonnes as a result of a shortage of foreign coal.

    Domestic coal was mixed with foreign coal in the interwar period to improve its quality; after the Second World War its usage was almost mandatory in thermoelectric utilities. Since the end of the s there has been no coal extraction in the country. From to , I aggregate data from a variety of sources and studies that give partial information about specific mines Our series begins in , and from that year until coal imports are taken from the yearly books of International Trade from INE For the periods and , official statistics are missing.

    In the first period , data for the two most important Customs Offices Lisboa and Oporto was used as representative of total consumption in the country For the second period , data is interpolated from and official figures Data for is changed due to an error in reporting Although Mitchell reports coal imports for Portugal from using Portuguese sources, this series is an improvement of Mitchell data as for some years not all coal imports are registered in his series Furthermore, I assumed different coefficients for coke, coal, brown coal, turf and peat Table 2.

    Imports are not always homogenous series as they can include or not bunker fuel I did not apply a 3- year moving average of the series as the authors and extraction figures are given as reported by official statistics. Data for was earlier recorded by Madureira and Teives , using the same methods as here. There is no major problem in not including the Customs of Madeira and Azores as most of the imported fuel would be re-exported to bunkers.

    For Mitchell does not include imports to the Portuguese navy, included in a special table. International organizations such as IEA do not account for fuel consumption consumed by international marine bunkers fuel delivered to sea-going ships when reporting the primary energy of a country. If one intends to account for bunkers using the same method as IEA one should include the domestic travel between domestic ports and airports, but not the international ones, in primary energy consumption.

    Bunkers are a tricky issue in energy accounting and not all the countries report them in the same manner. For example, they are considered part of domestic consumption by most Middle East countries but treated as exports in the majority of Latin countries Even amongst IEA countries, definitions are not entirely consistent.

    The main problems with bunker reporting is the lack of distinction between deliveries for international and domestic purposes, overestimation of bunkers in order not to have to hold stocks or inclusion of fishing fuel consumption, which is due to the fact that data is obtained by suppliers who do not know precisely the ultimate use of their sales The issue of bunkers has become more relevant nowadays due to the introduction of greenhouse gas inventories.

    In order to ascertain responsibility for bunker emissions for each emitting country, detailed information on a country by country basis on the fuels sold domestically and abroad to planes and ships should be available. This is a concern, as the way statistics are made today, at least part of the bunker emissions are lost, with no owner. While the Kyoto Protocol article recommends that Annex I parties pursue the limitation of Karbuz Det Norske Veritas United Nations energy statistics are different from IEA ones, in the way that they subtract also aviation bunker figures.

    Portuguese modern statistics do not account for bunkers in the same way as international organizations. Instead, they adopt a territorial concept, accounting for the fuel that is consumed by national aviation and marine ships and excluding the fuel that is consumed by foreign carriers From an historical point of view it is more interesting to adopt the Portuguese accounting method as it gives more information on the uses of energy by all the sectors in the economy.

    Besides, wind energy consumed by vessels is also part of our calculations, so it would be inconsistent to treat coal consumed by steam ships in a different way. With this methodology only the fuel acquired by national companies on international territory would not be accounted for.

    The choice of the Portuguese method will not imply a major problem when comparing with other European countries, as the proportion of the fuel used by national navigation and air carrier companies on international travel was or is undoubtedly small. In the case of coal, considering only imports would significantly overestimate Portuguese coal consumption in earlier periods.

    As in any coastal country, an important proportion of coal imports was destined to supply foreign ships, being only remotely associated with the level of industrialization of the country. In order to correct for supplies to foreign navigation, it is necessary to understand clearly how Portuguese trade statistics were generally presented and also their modifications, errors and inconsistencies. There were three main categories in Portuguese trade statistics: imports for consumption; national and nationalized exports and re-exports.

    Imports for consumption included as a general principle only the commodities that would be consumed within the country, that is, they would be net of re-exports. However, a proportion of the commodities that entered the country ports under the regime of imports for Technical workshop on emissions from aviation and maritime transports, October , www.

    Thus, they would then figure in export figures as nationalized exports. Re-exports comprised the imported goods that were not subjected to a consumption dispatch and that were sold to foreign territories. This generalized principle was followed by Madureira and Teives in their estimate of coal and oil consumption in the country However, as we will see, Portuguese official statistics do not always follow their definition of imports for consumption, export or re-exports in the case of coal for navigation purposes and some errors and inconsistencies need to be corrected From to , almost all supplies to both national and foreign steam ships were given in re-exports.

    As mentioned earlier, re-exports should not be included in imports for consumption, but a detailed analysis shows that some errors in reporting occurred. In that period imports, exports and re-exports are also disaggregated by main ports so it is easy to see that only fuel ship supplies in the islands were accounted as re-exports. Those islands had almost no industrial development, therefore accounting for imports would mean attributing them the higher per capita figures of coal consumption in the country, which would be impossible.

    Re-exports must then be subtracted of imports for consumption We do not have Portuguese registers of each port for periods prior to but UK trade statistics have separate figures for coal exports to mainland Portugal, Madeira and Azores going back in time. As the UK was the almost exclusive supplier of coal to Portugal, we can get some additional information from those statistics.

    Comparing UK coal exports for Azores and Madeira and coal exports and re- exports figures in the Portuguese trade statistics, all fuel in exports from to and in re-exports from to was for the islands of Azores and Due to a maximum time that companies were allowed to keep the merchandise in deposit, unanticipated exports or to an improvement of the merchandise.

    From to fuel supply was also reported as re-exports to the Island of Madeira and in Ponta Delgada Azores , but Horta Azores changes the report of fuels to exports, which is nothing more than the adoption of a new statistical procedure. In order to achieve a figure of coal consumption net of foreign bunkers for the islands in the period , one still needs to distinguish between exports and re-exports that were destined for national or foreign ships.

    Until exports distinguish if coal is going to foreign or domestic ships, and the proportion of national marine coal consumption in the islands was approximately zero. As for other ports in the country, Lisbon customs reports only a small fraction of its bunker consumption to exports Only after did Lisbon start to account for coal supplies to both national and foreign ships as exports There is a strong possibility that import for consumption before was given net of bunkers even if they were not registered in export or re-export as an exit.

    Isolated statistics for the commercial movement of the port of Lisbon in indicates 67 tons of coal supplied to steam vessels are clearly stated as being outside the imports, exports and re-exports figures. Coal for navigation in the islands was also included in imports in an earlier period.

    For , by reasons of late report, the customs of Funchal Madeira is treated separately from the ones in Mainland and Azores and we can see an importation figure almost identical to the re-exports figures. I searched for additional information in the few Lisbon customs statistics that I could find and no records for the totality of navigation coal supply is given. For the period of about four thousand tons of coals are reported in exports as consumption for bunkers but this did not represent all consumption by ships.

    The exception is the period for which a figure of 3 loading of coal to 6 foreign ships is given outside the importation or exportation maps as an addition. The difference is about 30 tonnes per year but it is lower in the decade of s about 15 tonnes per year. As it is not possible to find stronger evidence of bunker consumption in the Port of Lisbon we leave the statistics like they are. Contrary to the Islands, the majority of ships that entered and cleared the Lisbon port were not supplied with coal.

    Due to the existence of numerous nearby ports, bunker consumption depended mainly on the price of fuel and route of ships. Exports distinguish the coal for foreign consumption within the mainland but not the islands where an aggregate figure for coal supplies to national and foreign ships is given. From that year onwards, part of this kind of consumption is reported in exports, so subtracting this value from coal imports would give an accurate measure of coal consumption within the country The figure below Fig 2.

    Coal destined for foreign navigation had an important share in coal imports. However, the correction does not change Exports do not include all the bunker fuel sold to foreign ships as some of this fuel would not be included in imports for consumption. United Nations energy statistics for Portugal after do not reflect this particularity. While their import figures match the Portuguese ones they subtracted the whole total for bunkers included or not in the import figures to reach a figure for primary energy consumption.

    The first use of oil was in public and private lighting. Kerosene imports started in followed by gasoline in the early 20th century and gas-oil and fuel-oil in the s. Non-energy oil derivates such as paraffins or lubricant oils can be found in import trade statistics since the s. Butane imports started in From the eve of World War II crude oil imports began as the first oil refinery, in Lisbon, opened for production in In the first fifteen years the refinery had only the technology to produce low octane gasoline, high sulphur gas-oils, kerosene, fuel-oil and lubricants In January , a major modernization that included the installation of one catalytic cracking unit allowed, besides the production of a higher octane gasoline, the production of LPG butane and propane , jets, sulphurs and white spirits, among others.

    This fact leads to the emergence of the petrochemical industry. Three units for naphtha gasification for the production of ammonia and urea were installed by In the early s the refinery started to supply naphthas as a feedstock for the production of ammonia by fertilizer industries.

    Most of the hydrogen produced by naphtha treatment was used in ammonia production but a small part was returned to the refinery for feedstock. Town gas for the city of Lisbon was produced after from a mixture of the petrochemical gas, derived from naphtha gasification and ammonia production and refinery gases, propane or butane, replacing the old process of town gas production obtained from coal or coke This process was maintained until the closing of the refinery in the late s, when town gas was substituted by natural gas.

    Two other refineries, in Oporto and Sines, started refining crude oil in and Besides the production of fuels, the Oporto refinery included, from the beginning, a factory for the production of basic oil, which has employed Appendix B, Table B. The Sines refinery was constructed having in mind the external market. A new steam cracker was constructed downstream of the factory in using naphtha as a feedstock and producing ethylene, hydrogen, propylene, etc.

    Presently the refinery produces gasolines, petrols, gas-oils, fuel-oils, asphalts and sulphur. Fundamentally, oil consumption figures are presented in three ways in historical or official publications. International organizations such as the IEA, United Nations and Eurostat include non-energy uses of oil in their primary energy consumption definition, preferring to disaggregate between energy and non-energy uses at the level of final energy consumption.

    This first method is interesting from a point of view of fossil-fuel resource use dependency In historical reconstructions, it allows also to study the development of the chemical industry. However, it can be argued that it over-stresses the share of fossil fuels in the energy balances being inconsistent with the treatment given to other energy carriers such as firewood, since energy balances do not include wood for construction purposes, for example.

    Both wells are now in production and several tests have been carried out. Based on initial results from the wells, DNO expects that the gross initial production from the field will be in the range of 12, to 15, barrels of oil. Jette is a small field and there are uncertainties with respect to future production rates. The company has previously indicated an initial production level of about 10, barrels of oil per day..

    A full copy of this release is available on the Company s website Fox-Davies Capital 6. The outlook, however, remains buoyant, especially if they meet their timetable of 2. While it is yet to draw down on this loan, and a drawdown will be contingent on first oil, the potential to get it horribly wrong is huge. The investor base bought in to the delivery of OML 40, and this needs to be accomplished first, before the management team become distracted by new assets. The Company currently holds interests in producing and prospective properties in Colombia, Argentina and Peru.

    With a long term test expected in , the key issues for the management to address are the route to market, which considering that the asset in is deep in the Amazonian jungle will be no mean feat. In this respect, that the test crude is expected to be sold to the Iquitos refinery during the initial test period, it will act a useful proving ground for the commercialisation scenarios. While this is a positive step, it is also a stark reminder that this asset is by no means a commercial certainty yet, and there is a long way to go.

    What is does do however, is support GED s technical assessment of the asset, and while the Company is no longer involved with its appraisal, it is still a feather in its technical team s cap. The Group explores for, develops, produces and processes oil and gas. For neutrals of the shares, it will be interesting to see how this develops, and more importantly, who will be the proposed replacement.

    This could go one of three ways for investors, the incumbents remain, and the existing strategy continues, the incumbents could be replaced and the Company s fortunes are lifted assuming a better candidate exists and is selected , or the incumbents are replaced and it becomes a public market plaything for a Messers Kolomoisky and Zhukov, and the minority holders get squeezed out.

    Ultimately, what s needed is a white knight, a third party to take up the issues that have been raised, and provide some measure of protection to the minority shareholders. Whatever the outcome, for neutral observers it will be an interesting battle A full copy of this release is available on the Company s website or via the London Stock Exchange m Performance Fox-Davies Capital 8.

    The Company is principally engaged in exploration and development of oil and gas in Kazakhstan, and appraisal development and production of oil and gas properties in Kazakhstan. The Company explores, extracts, refines and markets oil and natural gas. Inpex will fully finance geological exploration work at these blocks in line with approved programmes.

    Furthermore, the agreement provides for non-recurrent bonuses to be paid by INPEX to Rosneft for each commercial oil and gas discovery proportionally with its stake in the project. A full copy of this release is available on the Company s website Fox-Davies Capital 9. The Company's operations are located in the Krasnoleninsk field in Western Siberia.

    This now places the focus back on the management s ability to deliver, which up until now has been less than convincing. This has now become a race to grow cash quicker than the obligations, and this is the key element in reversing the fortunes of the Company in sufficient time to enable it to pay the debt. We will keep watching, but we still need to see more detail on the strategy, a dissection of what went wrong, and more importantly how they are going to ensure that they do not repeat the same mistakes.

    Until then the jury is very much out on whether this team, even with the additional time, will be able to meet their revised deadline. The equity holders are now at risk, as if they can t, there is either a large equity raise, or dilution on the way. We believe that it is now time for the shareholders to assert control of their company and get better Board representation. This will have the double effect of reducing the value of the shares further, and it will depress the price.

    This is a stark reminder of the obligations that come with a loan that aren t necessarily present with funding via equity, and while the day-to-day cash costs may be lower, the ultimate costs may be considerably higher. This is the same fate that befell Equator, where a loan to post a performance bond set the clock ticking, creating a deadline which ultimately it could not deliver; the bonds were bought by Oando for cents on the dollar who then defaulted Equator and took it private.

    While the same doesn t appear to have happened here, it is a salutary reminder that debt is not to be taken lightly. In the latest twist 31 st May , the directors have resigned and the shares suspended; looks like a restructuring may be on the cards. Metric 5D 1M 2. As such, the news this week 28 th May that it is doing just that must come as a bit of a shock to the Company s owners. We would like to get more information about what has precipitated this move, and in the final analysis what made the incumbent management who are oil men so convinced that there was such a lack of opportunity in the segment for which investors invested in, that they had to look outside the sector.

    We will wait and see. Fox-Davies Capital Given the foregoing this document is deemed to be a marketing communication and as such has not been prepared in accordance with legal requirements designed to promote the independence of investment research and Fox-Davies Capital Limited is not subject to any prohibition on dealing ahead of dissemination of this document as it would be if it were independent investment research. This document has been issued by Fox-Davies Capital Limited for information purposes only and should not be construed in any circumstances as an offer to sell or solicitation of any offer to buy any security or other financial instrument, nor shall it, or the fact of its distribution, form the basis of, or be relied upon in connection with, any contract relating to such action.

    This document has no regard for the specific investment objectives, financial situation or needs of any specific entity. The information contained herein is based on materials and sources that we believe to be reliable, however, Fox-Davies Capital Limited makes no representation or warranty, either express or implied, in relation to the accuracy, completeness or reliability of the information contained herein. Opinions expressed are our current opinions as of the date appearing on this material only.

    Any opinions expressed are subject to change without notice and Fox-Davies Capital Limited is under no obligation to update the information contained herein. None of Fox-Davies Capital Limited, its affiliates or employees shall have any liability whatsoever for any indirect or consequential loss or damage arising from any use of this document. This report has been approved in the UK by Fox-Davies Capital Limited solely for the purposes of section 21 of the Financial Services and Markets Act In the UK, this report is directed at and is for distribution only to persons who i fall within Article 19 1 persons who have professional experience in matters relating to investments or Article 49 2 a to d high net worth companies, unincorporated associations, etc.

    This report must not be acted on or relied up on by persons in the UK who are not relevant persons. Neither this report nor any copy of part thereof may be distributed in any other jurisdictions where its distribution may be restricted by law and persons into whose possession this report comes should inform themselves about, and observe any such restrictions.

    Distribution of this report in any such other jurisdictions may constitute a violation of UK or US securities law, or the law of any such other jurisdictions. Investments in general involve some degree of risk, including the risk of capital loss. The services, securities and investments discussed in this document may not be available to nor suitable for all investors. Investors should make their own investment decisions based upon their own financial objectives and financial resources and, if in any doubt, should seek advice from an investment advisor.

    Past performance is not necessarily a guide to future performance and an investor may not get back the amount originally invested. Where investment is made in currencies other than the investor s base currency, movements in exchange rates will have an effect on the value, either favourable or unfavourable. Levels and bases for taxation may change. Furthermore, the marketability of these shares is often restricted.

    Accordingly, information may be available to Fox-Davies Limited that is not reflected in this material and Fox-Davies Capital Limited may have acted upon or used the information prior to or immediately following its publication. Neither the whole nor any part of this material may be duplicated in any form or by any means.

    Neither should any of this material be redistributed or disclosed to anyone without the prior consent of Fox-Davies Capital Limited. Fox-Davies Capital Limited may distribute research in reliance on rule 15a-6 a 2 of the Securities and Exchange Act to persons that are major US Institutional investors, however, transactions in any securities must be effected through a US registered broker-dealer.

    Any failure to comply with this restriction may constitute a violation of the relevant country s laws for which Fox-Davies Capital Limited does not accept any responsibility. Please note that unless otherwise stated, the share price used in this publication is taken at the close of business for the previous day. The operator of an oil or gas field is the company responsible for the field s management and day-to-day operation.

    Introduction Africa is a prolific basin yet remains under-explored, by global standards. As a result, its commanding increased investor attention in the capital markets. A number of emerging companies. Energy Transactions: What s the Deal? Brian A. Getting Acquainted With Lower Oil. The U. Oil Cheap, Natural Gas Cheaper Summary and Recommendation Continued growth in oil consumption despite high taxes in consuming countries demonstrates that the real value of the commodity is higher than.

    Last time around, thirty years ago, there was. Oper ID Operator. Some of the. Natural Gas Output Week 2 demonstrates the marvellous Marcellus. Seven Generations Energy Ltd. Outperforming in Summary and Recommendation Meter Reader In a welcome, little recognized surprise, the stocks in our coverage are outperforming the market in Relative underperformance has been. Prospects for 26 Into the medium. New Standard Energy company overview 2. Global shale gas position 3.

    Demand for natural gas has always been highly cyclical. Primary factors of influence include weather,. Shapiro and Nam D. Shapiro and Nam. Morrison cibc. Gibson cibc. Reid cibc. Norwegian Energy Company ASA Presentation of Q3 23 November Important information The information included herein contains certain forward-looking statements that address activities, events or. Dividend Capacity Summary and Recommendation Conventional energy stocks that use more of their capacity to pay dividends are likely to outperform pipeline partnerships that pay dividends in excess of their.

    Trusts as Futures Summary and Recommendation Recommended royalty trusts offer an alternative to futures contracts for investors looking for long-term growth in oil and gas commodity value or for protection. Frontline reports nine month results of. Strategic Review April Disclaimer The information contained in this presentation, which may include certain forward-looking information, is not to be relied upon for any particular purpose, and is.

    Enhanced Oil Resources Inc. Denbury Resources Inc. Financial institutions Energy Infrastructure, mining and commodities Transport Technology and innovation Life sciences and healthcare Feasibility A guide to feasibility planning for junior mining companies. The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited takes no responsibility for the contents of this announcement, makes no representation as to its accuracy or completeness and expressly disclaims any liability whatsoever.

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    Enerkom energy-torrent In the service sector, labour time cannot be reduced to the same degree, so labour productivity does not rise as much as enerkom energy-torrent industry Efficiency around that period had grown with the substitution of turbines for wheels but intensity of use source probably dropped. For onwards I connected Electrical Enerkom energy-torrent series for with the values for firewood and other solids rice peels, olive seeds, etc reported in Energy Balance Sheets for power uses. Adjustments for industrial production have been made in GDP historical reconstructions by growth accounting economists such as Batista et al. Statistics record only the power of the mills, that is, the capacity to produce work per unit of time. The improvement in income situation, an increase of obesity, height and wastage and the ageing of the Portuguese population offsets changes in the activity level.

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